Database management is the system for managing data that supports the organization’s business processes. It involves storing data, disseminating it to users and applications and editing it when needed as well as monitoring changes in data and protecting against data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is a part of the overall informational infrastructure of a company that aids in decision-making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory, to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.
A database is tables that arrange data according to some scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, called attributes, that contain information about the data entities. The most well-known type of database that is currently in use is a relational model, designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the necessity of changing various databases.
Most DBMSs are able to support different types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability and other operational issues, like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of different external views based on different models of data and may also include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to enhance the performance.